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European Union Population, Official Language And More.



European Union

The EU also faces many challenges and opportunities in its present and future, such as: managing the consequences of Brexit, which is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU after 47 years of membership; dealing with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has posed a major threat to public health and economic recovery; strengthening its security and defence cooperation in a changing global context; addressing the migration crisis and reforming its asylum system; fostering social cohesion and solidarity among its citizens; enhancing its digital transformation and innovation potential; expanding its enlargement process and neighbourhood policy.

Read about the history Here…

European Union

European Union

The population

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU has a total population of over 448 million people, making it the third most populous entity in the world after China and India. The most populous member state is Germany, with an estimated 84.3 million people, and the least populous member state is Malta with 0.54 million. The EU has 24 official languages, and its citizens have the right to use any of them to communicate with the EU institutions. The EU also respects and promotes its cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.

The landmarks

The EU has many famous landmarks that reflect its rich and diverse cultural heritage, history and architecture. Some of the most iconic landmarks in Europe are:

  • The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France: An architectural marvel, it remains one of the most recognized structures globally. It was constructed in 1889 by Gustave Eiffel for the World’s Fair and stands at a height of 324 meters (1,063 ft) tall.
  • The Colosseum in Rome, Italy: A symbol of ancient Roman grandeur, it echoes tales of gladiators and empires. It was built in the first century AD and could hold up to 80,000 spectators. It is one of the largest and best-preserved amphitheatres in the world.
  • The Acropolis of Athens in Athens, Greece: Standing tall in the Greek capital, it is a testament to ancient Greek civilization and culture. It is a complex of temples and monuments dating back to the fifth century BC, including the Parthenon, the Erechtheion and the Propylaea.
  • The Big Ben in London, United Kingdom: A symbol of British democracy and culture, it is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock tower at the north end of the Palace of Westminster. It was completed in 1859 and chimes every hour. The tower is officially known as Elizabeth Tower since 2012.
  • The Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria, Germany: A fairy-tale castle that inspired Walt Disney, it was built by King Ludwig II of Bavaria in the 19th century as a personal retreat and homage to composer Richard Wagner. It is one of the most visited castles in Europe and features a Romanesque Revival style.

The official languages

The EU has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish. These languages are used for drafting and publishing EU laws and documents, as well as for communication between EU institutions and citizens. The EU also recognises other languages spoken by its member states or regions as co-official or regional languages.

The culture

The EU is characterised by its cultural diversity and pluralism. The EU supports and promotes the arts and creative industries in Europe through various programmes and initiatives, such as Creative Europe, European Capitals of Culture and European Heritage Label. The EU also fosters cultural cooperation and dialogue with other countries and regions through its external action and international cultural relations. The EU celebrates its common cultural heritage and values through events such as Europe Day on 9 May and European Year of Cultural Heritage in 2018.

The economic stability

The EU has a common economic governance framework that aims to ensure sound and sustainable public finances, promote economic growth and convergence, address macroeconomic imbalances and enhance resilience. The framework consists of several elements, such as:

  • The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), which sets rules and procedures for fiscal discipline and coordination among member states.
  • The European Semester, which is an annual cycle of policy coordination and surveillance that covers fiscal, macroeconomic and structural policies.
  • The Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (MIP), which monitors and corrects excessive imbalances that pose a risk to economic stability.
  • The Banking Union, which is a system of common banking supervision and resolution that aims to ensure financial stability and protect depositors.
  • The Capital Markets Union (CMU), which is an initiative to deepen and integrate capital markets across the EU to diversify funding sources for businesses and investors.
  • The GDP

    The gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the total value of goods and services produced by a country or a region in a given period. The GDP of the European Union (EU) is the sum of the GDPs of its 27 member states. According to the World Bank, the EU had a GDP of $16.64 trillion in 2022, making it the second-largest economy in the world after the United States ($22.68 trillion). The EU accounted for about 18.5% of the global GDP in 2022. The EU’s GDP per capita, which is the GDP divided by the population, was $33,961 in 2022, ranking 28th in the world. The EU’s GDP growth rate, which is the percentage change in GDP from one year to another, was -3.2% in 2022, reflecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy.

    The currency

    The currency of the European Union is the euro (symbol: €; currency code: EUR). The euro is the official currency of 20 of the 27 member states of the EU, which collectively make up the euro area or the eurozone. These countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The euro was introduced in 1999 as an accounting currency and in 2002 as a physical currency. The euro is managed by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks of the euro area countries. The euro is divided into 100 euro cents. The euro is also widely used by other states outside the EU as a reserve currency or a pegged currency.

    The food

    The food of the European Union is diverse and reflects the cultural and geographical diversity of its member states. The EU supports and promotes its food quality and safety through various policies and programmes, such as:

    • The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which provides financial support and incentives to farmers and rural communities to ensure sustainable food production and environmental protection.
    • The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which regulates fishing activities and fish stocks to ensure sustainable fisheries and aquaculture.
    • The Food Safety Policy, which sets harmonised standards and rules for food hygiene, animal health and welfare, plant health and contaminants to ensure a high level of protection of human health and consumer rights.
    • The Food Quality Policy, which protects and promotes food products with specific characteristics linked to their geographical origin or traditional methods of production through labels such as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG).
    • The Food Information Policy, which requires clear and accurate labelling of food products to inform consumers about their ingredients, nutritional value, allergens and origin.

    Some examples of typical foods from different EU countries are:

    • France: baguette (bread), croissant (pastry), cheese (such as camembert or brie), wine (such as bordeaux or champagne), crepe (thin pancake), ratatouille (vegetable stew), quiche (savory pie), boeuf bourguignon (beef stew), coq au vin (chicken cooked in wine), crème brûlée (custard with caramelized sugar).
    • Italy: pizza (flatbread with cheese and toppings), pasta (noodles with sauce), risotto (rice cooked with broth), lasagna (layered pasta with cheese and meat sauce), gnocchi (potato dumplings), polenta (cornmeal porridge), mozzarella (fresh cheese), parmesan (hard cheese), prosciutto (cured ham), tiramisu (dessert with coffee and mascarpone cheese).
    • Spain: paella (rice dish with meat or seafood), tortilla de patatas (potato omelette), gazpacho (cold tomato soup), jamón ibérico (cured ham from black pigs), chorizo (spicy sausage), croquetas (fried balls of béchamel sauce with ham or cheese), tapas (small dishes served as appetizers or snacks), sangria (wine mixed with fruit juice and spices), churros (fried dough strips dipped in chocolate sauce).
    • Germany: bratwurst (grilled sausage), schnitzel (breaded veal cutlet), sauerkraut (fermented cabbage), spätzle (egg noodles), pretzel (twisted bread with salt), rye bread (dark bread made from rye flour), beer (alcoholic drink made from malted barley and hops), apple strudel (pastry with apple filling), black forest cake (chocolate cake with cherries and whipped cream).
    • Greece: moussaka (baked dish with eggplant, minced meat and béchamel sauce), souvlaki (skewered grilled meat), tzatziki (yogurt dip with cucumber and garlic), feta (salty cheese), olives (small fruits with pits), pita bread (flatbread), baklava (pastry with nuts and honey), ouzo (anise-flavored liquor).

    The major cities

    The European Union has many major cities that are important for their economic, cultural, political and historical significance. Some of the most populous and influential cities in the EU are:

    • Berlin: The capital and largest city of Germany, with a population of about 3.9 million. Berlin is a global city of culture, politics, media, science and innovation. It is home to many landmarks, such as the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Berlin Wall and the Museum Island. Berlin is also known for its vibrant nightlife, art scene and festivals.
    • Paris: The capital and most populous city of France, with a population of about 2.1 million. Paris is one of the most visited cities in the world and a leading center of fashion, gastronomy, art and architecture. It is famous for its monuments, such as the Eiffel Tower, the Arc de Triomphe, the Louvre Museum and the Notre Dame Cathedral. Paris is also the seat of many international organizations, such as UNESCO, OECD and ICC.
    • London: The capital and largest city of the United Kingdom, with a population of about 9.1 million. London is a global city of finance, commerce, education, entertainment, media and tourism. It is renowned for its landmarks, such as Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, Tower Bridge and Westminster Abbey. London is also a multicultural and cosmopolitan city that hosts many cultural events and festivals.
    • Madrid: The capital and largest city of Spain, with a population of about 3.3 million. Madrid is a major political, economic and cultural hub in Europe and the world. It is known for its historical and artistic heritage, such as the Royal Palace, the Prado Museum and the Plaza Mayor. Madrid is also a lively city that offers a variety of attractions, such as parks, theaters, restaurants and bars.
    • Rome: The capital and largest city of Italy, with a population of about 2.8 million. Rome is one of the oldest and most influential cities in history and civilization. It is the seat of the Vatican City, the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. It is also famous for its ancient monuments, such as the Colosseum, the Pantheon and the Trevi Fountain. Rome is also a center of culture, art and cuisine.

    The major airports, seaports and schools

    The European Union has many major airports, seaports and schools that facilitate its transport, trade and education sectors. Some of the most prominent ones are:

    • Airports: The EU has some of the busiest airports in the world in terms of passenger traffic. According to Eurostat data for 2021, the top five airports in the EU by number of passengers were: Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris (26.2 million), Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Amsterdam (25.5 million), Frankfurt am Main Airport in Frankfurt (24.8 million), Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport in Madrid (23.2 million) and Josep Tarradellas Barcelona–El Prat Airport in Barcelona (18.5 million). These airports serve as major hubs for international flights and connect Europe with other continents.
    • Seaports: The EU has some of the largest seaports in the world in terms of cargo volume. According to Eurostat data for 2019, the top five seaports in the EU by total gross weight of goods handled were: Port of Rotterdam in Rotterdam (469 million tonnes), Port of Antwerp in Antwerp (238 million tonnes), Port of Hamburg in Hamburg (137 million tonnes), Port of Algeciras in Algeciras (110 million tonnes) and Port of Valencia in Valencia (83 million tonnes). These seaports facilitate maritime trade within Europe and with other regions.
    • Schools: The EU has some of the best schools in the world in terms of academic performance and reputation. According to QS World University Rankings for 2022, the top five universities in the EU by overall score were: University of Oxford in Oxford (100), University of Cambridge in Cambridge (99.5), Imperial College London in London (97.4), ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (95) and UCL – University College London in London (94). These universities offer high-quality education and research in various fields of study.